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Sicily and southern Italy formed some of the earliest colonies, as they were areas already home to an abundance of grapevines.
The Greeks called the southern part of the Italian Peninsula Oenotria ("land of vines").
A massive rootstock was carved into a cult image of the Great Goddess and set up on the coast of Phrygia by the Argonauts.
The late Dionysiaca of Nonnus recounts the primitive invention of wine-pressing, credited to Dionysus, and Homer's description of the Shield of Achilles describes that part of its wrought decoration illustrating the grape harvest from a vineyard protectively surrounded by a trench and a fence; the vines stand in rows supported on stakes.
Greeks embedded the arrival of winemaking culture in the mythologies of Dionysus and the cultural hero Aristaeus.
As the Greek city-states established colonies throughout the Mediterranean, the settlers brought grapevines with them and were active in cultivating the wild vines they encountered.
The 4th-century BC Greek writer Theophrastus left a detailed record of some Greek influences and innovations in viticulture, one of which was the study of vineyard soils and their proper match to specific grapevines.
Through trade with ancient Egypt, the Minoan civilization on Crete was introduced to Egyptian winemaking methods, an influence most likely imparted to Mycenaean Greece.
The Minoan palaces had their associated vineyards, as Spyridon Marinatos demonstrated in excavations just south of the palace site at Archanes, and the Minoan equivalent of a villa rustica devoted to wine production was unearthed at Kato Zakros in 1961.
Not all Greek viticulture techniques were widely adopted by other wine regions.
Some Greek vineyards used mysticism to ward off disease and bad weather.
Theophrastus also detailed the practice of using suckering and plant cuttings for new vineyard plantings.